Almost any game has these nested loops of interaction, each of which has a success and failure state. When you first pick up a controller and start playing a game, you don't know how to control the character and you're failing- I want him to go left, he's not moving at all until you find the right button, now he starts moving left. So right off the bat in the first few seconds you're encountering this loop of failure, failure, failure, then you're learning how to control the character and now I'm succeeding. Now I get to the next loop. Oh, there's a bad guy, what do I do? And then I fail a few times trying to defeat the bad guy, then I finally find out that I have to jump on top of him, like a Mario, or something like that. Now I have success and I get to the next level. Okay, how do I get past this pipe? Or- and each one of these is a successively long¬¨er interaction loop that the player is having with the game. And each one basically has a success state and failure states. And what's kind of interesting is the players, you know, most of the time in a game, you're going to be failing. That is most of the process of you playing the game is failing repeatedly. Usually at successively further points in this interaction loop: first you're failing in the first few seconds, I don't know how to drive the car. Then you're failing because I can't go around the corners correctly. Then you're failing because this other car keeps beating you. But players actually enjoy failure as long as they can go back and understand why they failed. It really incentivizes them to want to go back and try it again once they understand, Oh I see, I need to kind of do this as I go into the corner. But that's probably 95 % of what they player's going to be doing the whole time they're playing the game is failing. But the failure, if it's done right, is incredibly motivating to go back and to try it again to get to the next level.